Phases of development and implementation have been identified by Fixsen Naoom, Blasé’, Friedman & Wallace, 2005 and include: 1) Exploration, 2) Installation, 3) Initial Implementation, 4) Full Implementation and 5) Innovation and Sustainability. Sustainability has been defined as the durable implementation of a practice at a level of fidelity that continues to produce valued outcomes (McIntosh et al., 2009).
- It remains a priority for faculty, staff and administrators. Priority is the importance of an initiative in comparison to other practices, incorporation into the core system and connection to other initiatives. Priority is achieved through maximizing visibility, documenting with written policy and braiding all school/district initiatives. It also includes staff commitment, administrator support, integration into existing and new efforts and the availability of ongoing resources.
- It is effective for ALL students. Effectiveness is the extent to which the practice results in desired outcomes and have proven to be effective. Schools and districts can enhance effectiveness by carefully selecting practices that are likely to produce the desired outcomes. Staff perception that the effects on student outcomes are directly related to implementation of SW-PBS are also important. Effectiveness is dependent on the skills and knowledge of those implementing SW-PBS. Ensuring high fidelity of implementation is related to effectiveness as is sharing data that shows how the practice is related to desired outcomes. Sharing the load and using a team approach also enhance effectiveness of implementation.
- It is efficient for school personnel. Efficiency is the relationship between continued effort and continued effectively and weighed against other potential practices. A durable practice should become more efficient over time because it is easier on implementers and resources. Teachers are more likely to implement SW-PBS if it can be integrated into their existing job roles and is a realistic expectation.
- It is adaptive to change. Making adaptations to SW-PBS to fit the school’s culture and based on data increase the likelihood SW-PBS will be sustained.
- School teams provide leadership for SW-PBS in a building
- School teams use data regularly to make decisions
- Sharing data and decisions made about the data with the entire staff on a regular basis (at least quarterly) which is an action that indicates priority of the practice
- Ongoing access to professional development and coaching to support implementation, especially in the classroom